The parallax – astronomia-iniciacion.com

To calculate the distance of a planet, parallax can be used.

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Parallax consists of putting a finger before the eyes. The background should not be uniform. Without moving the head or finger and looking first with one eye and then with another, you can see that the position of the finger in relation to the background changes. If we bring the finger closer to the eyes and look again first with one eye and then with the other, the two positions of the finger against the background will cover a larger part.

This is because between the two eyes there is a separation of several centimeters, so the imaginary line that joins the finger with one of the eyes forms an angle with the imaginary line that joins the finger with the other eye. If we extend these two imaginary lines to the bottom, we will have two points that correspond to the two apparent positions of the finger.

The closer to the eyes we put the finger, the greater the angle and the greater also the apparent displacement.

If the eyes were more separated, the angle formed by the two lines would increase more, and thus the apparent displacement of the finger against the background would be greater.

El paralaje

This can also apply to a planet. It is true that the Moon is so far away that we can not see any difference when we look with both eyes. But if we look at the Moon against the starry background of the sky, from two observatories some hundreds of kilometers away, we will notice something. From the first observatory we will see that one of the edges of the Moon is at a certain distance from a specific star, while in the second observatory the distance between the same edge and the same star will be different.

Knowing the apparent displacement of the Moon against the starry background and the distance between both observatories, the distance aided by trigonometry can be calculated.

This experiment could be done perfectly, because the apparent displacement of the Moon with respect to the starry background when changing the position of the observer is very large. Astronomers have normalized this displacement for the case that one of the observers is seeing the Moon on the horizon and the other just above his head. The base of the triangle will then be equal to the radius of the Earth and the angle with vertex on the Moon is the “equatorial horizontal parallax”. Its value is 57.04 minutes of arc, or 0.95 degrees of arc. A really appreciable displacement, because it is equivalent to twice the apparent diameter of the full Moon. It is a magnitude that can be measured with enough precision, and allows to get a good value for the distance of the Moon. This distance, calculated with the help of parallax, matches very well with the figure obtained by that old method based on the shadow projected by the Earth during a lunar eclipse.

Unfortunately, the conditions in the year 1600 did not allow to place the observatories at a sufficient distance, which, together with the enormous distance to which the planets are located, made the apparent displacement against the starry background too small to be measured. accurately.

Later, the telescope arrived, invented or reinvented by the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei . The telescope allowed an angular distance not detectable to the naked eye to be easily measured.

The planets with major parallaxes are the closest, that is, Mars and Venus. Venus, in its closest approach to the Sun passes so close to him that it is impossible to observe it, except in the transits, where it can be seen against the bottom of the solar disk. So, the only case to measure parallax was the planet Mars.

The first telescopic measurement of a planetary parallax was made in 1671. The two observers were Jean Richer, French astronomer, leading a scientific expedition to Cayenne, in French Guiana and the Italian-French astronomer Giovanni Cassini, who stayed in Paris. They observed Mars with the maximum possible simultaneity and took note of their position with respect to the closest stars. Calculated the difference of positions observed and known the distance from Cayenne to Paris, the distance of Mars was calculated at the time of measurement.

Once this was done, we already had the scale of the Kepler model, which would allow us to calculate all the other distances of the solar system. Cassini estimated that the distance between the Sun and the Earth was 140,000,000 kilometers, nine million kilometers below the actual figure, but an excellent result for the first attempt.

Later, more accurate measurements of planetary parallaxes were made. Some on Venus, on the occasions that pass right between the Earth and the Sun, and that can be seen as a small dark circle crossing the Sun’s disk. These transits took place in 1761 and 1769. If the transit is observed from two different observatories , it can be verified that the moment in which Venus comes into contact with the solar disk and also the moment in which it separates from it, which is the duration of the transit, varies from one observatory to another. Known these variations and the distances between the two observatories, you can calculate the parallax of Venus. Having this data, one can calculate the distance to Venus, and then the distance to the Sun.

The German astronomer Johann Franz Encke , in 1835, used the existing data of the transits of Venus to calculate the distance from the Sun, and the figure was 153,450,000 kilometers. It exceeded a bit of the actual figure, but only about 3,000,000 kilometers.

In order to obtain more exact values, the main difficulty was that Venus and Mars were seen by the telescope as tiny spheres, which prevented to fix accurately the position of the planet. Especially disappointing was Venus, because the thick atmospheric layer that it had produced optical effects that prevented seeing during the transit the exact moment of contact with the solar disk.

Suddenly an unexpected event happened. The Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi, in 1801, discovered a small celestial body whose orbit was between Mars and Jupiter, and called it Ceres. It had a diameter of less than 800 kilometers. As the century progressed, hundreds of even smaller planets were discovered, all between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. They were the asteroids. Sometime later, in 1898, Karl Gustav Witt, a German astronomer, discovered Eros, an asteroid far from the asteroid zone. A part of its orbit passed through that of Mars, and very close to Earth as well.

It was estimated that in 1931 Eros would approach Earth. It was a good opportunity to calculate the parallax. Since Eros is very small, it is estimated that its maximum diameter is 24 kilometers, and it has no atmosphere that could blur its contour, it would be observed as a bright spot and its position could be well calculated.

A large project was organized on an international scale. Thousands of photographs were taken and studied, and it was concluded, from the parallax and the position of Eros, that the Sun is a little less than 150,000,000 kilometers from Earth. This is an average, because the Earth describes an ellipse around the Sun, not a circumference. The perihelion, or minimum distance between the Earth and the Sun, is 147,000,000 kilometers and the aphelion, maximum distance of 152,200,000 kilometers.

 

The distance from Earth to the Moon – astronomia-iniciacion.com

The Greeks would have solved the great cosmological problem 2,000 years ago if the Universe were formed only by the Earth. But the Universe is not only the Earth, and this the Greeks knew very well. Above the Earth is the sky.

When man thought that the Earth was flat, he conceived the sky as a dome or a mound of height sufficient to understand the mountains and clouds, say about 16 kilometers.

But of course, if the Earth was a sphere, then the sky must be a second larger sphere that enveloped the first. But the Greeks, and before them the Babylonians and Egyptians, were not happy with this.

The sphere of the sky seems to make a complete revolution around the Earth every 24 hours and carries the stars with it, without changing its location, year after year, generation after generation. It was logical to think that the stars were stuck on the celestial sphere, and that is how it was believed until the seventeenth century.

It was also observed that there were celestial bodies that move between the stars and that were not stuck on the celestial sphere, but probably were between the sphere and the Earth. Seven of these bodies were known: the Sun, the Moon, Venus, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn and Mercury. To these seven bodies the Greeks called them planets, which means “wanderers”, since they wandered among the stars. This word has reached our days in the form of “planets”.

As the Moon passed in front of the Sun every time there was an eclipse, it was easy for the Greeks to deduce that the Moon was closer to the Earth than the Sun.

For the rest of the planets, the Greeks relied on the relative speeds of the planets with respect to the stars. We all know that the closer an object is to movement, the faster it seems to move. On the other hand, if it is far away, it hardly seems to move, although it may go faster than another object that is closer to us.

In this way, the Greeks concluded that the Moon was the closest of the seven planets. As for the rest, they thought that the closest was Mercury, then Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter and the furthest Saturn.

Thus, the Greeks began with the Moon to measure the distance of the planets from Earth, because if this was not possible, much less could they calculate the distances to the other celestial bodies.

The first to calculate the distance to the Moon was the Greek Aristarchus of Samos (320-250 BC), and took the data during a lunar eclipse. The curve of the shadow of the Earth on the Moon gave him the data.

The method was improved a century later by Hipparchus of Nicaea (190-120 BC), another Greek. He concluded that the distance between the Moon and Earth was approximately thirty times the diameter of it. According to Eratosthenes, the diameter of the Earth was 12,800 kilometers, so the distance from the Moon should be 384,000 kilometers, an excellent figure, since the average distance between the Moon on Earth is 384,317.2 kilometers. We speak of average distance since the orbit of the Moon around the Earth is not a perfect circle, but it approaches (perigee) and moves away (apogee).

When the Greeks already knew the distance to the Moon, it was clear that the sky was not close to the Earth’s sphere, because if the closest body, the Moon, was more than 384,000 kilometers away, the other planets were much further away .

Aristarchus realized that when the Moon was just in the first room, or in the last room, it formed a right triangle with the Sun and the Earth. He measured the angle that the Moon made with the Sun, and in this way was able to calculate the quotient between the distances to the Moon and the Sun thanks to trigonometry. Once the distance to the Moon was known, he could calculate the distance to the Sun.

Medición de la distancia entre la Tierra y la Luna

Unfortunately, measuring angles in space without instruments is very difficult, as well as knowing the exact moment when the Moon is in the first or last quarter. The theory was perfect, but the measurements had enough errors to give inaccurate results. Aristarchus calculated that the distance from the Sun was twenty times that of the Moon. So, if the Moon is 384,000 kilometers from Earth, the Sun would be 8,000,000 kilometers, a figure well below reality. Even so, this figure showed the magnitude of the Universe.

Still, it can be said that in the year 150 a. C. the Greeks had managed to calculate quite accurately the shape and dimensions of the Earth and the distance to the Moon. They thought that the Universe was a giant sphere at least several million kilometers in diameter. At its center they placed an Earth-Moon system.

 

Agro-loan PAC Advance

 

Agro-loan PAC Advance

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Domicilia the PAC in BBVA and you can apply for the PIC Agro loan . Also, get a free subscription to the Cropti zoom app to improve your farm management.

  • New technologies to improve your agricultural management with the Cropti Zoom app.

  • Request your Agropréstamo PIC Advance when you need it to face any unforeseen event that may arise in your agricultural activity.

  • Agro-loan PAC Advance
  • Cropti App Zoom

In addition to giving you an agile and quick response to manage them, you can request an advance to start enjoying them today.

  • Amount: up to 100% of the amount of the aid.
  • 0% interest.
  • 7.57% APR (according to the following example).
  • Term: 1 year with early cancellation upon receipt of the subsidy. Until June 30, 2019.
  • Opening commission: 3% .
  • Study commission: exempt.

Example

Do like Guillermo and enjoy the same amenities:

Guillermo has domiciled the PAC in BBVA. In December you will receive € 20,000. But as in March he has to face the purchase of forage for an amount of € 18,000, he comes to his BBVA office and applies for the Pico Agro-loan in the same month of March, taking into account € 1,400 to face other contingencies of his agrarian activity.

He has paid an interest of 0% TIN, with an opening commission of 3%, which implies an APR of 7.57%.

See legal text ico cerrado Financing subject to prior authorization by BBVA. Up to 100% of the amount of your PAC. These conditions are valid until 12/31/18. Check in your office. The loan requires prior approval from BBVA.

The app to improve your agricultural management:

  • Satellite tracking of all your crops.
  • More efficient management to increase your productivity.
  • Detect possible incidents in your plots.
  • Save on phytosanitary products, fertilizers, seeds … applying the exact doses in the right places.

Enjoy an easy-to-use tool that always goes with you, on your mobile. Only in BBVA, by domiciling the PAC , you get your subscription free of charge to the Cropti Zoom app.

See legal text ico cerrado Cropti Zoom is a service offered by CROP OPTIMIZATION SYSTEMS SL with a subscription free of charge until 12/31/2018, for customers who place their PAC in BBVA in 2018. After this period, see conditions at www.cropti.com

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The most common conditions when applying for a loan

The most common conditions when applying for a loan

Do you need a loan to finance a project but don’t know how to get one? We’ll explain everything you need to know

The financing you need, quickly and simply, with a BBVA loanCalculate your loan

Requesting a loan from a financial institution is a process that takes time, and the applicant must also spend some time thinking carefully about his or her actual needs. A loan is a type of contract, and this means that it must not be taken lightly. The borrower must be aware of the fact that the money loaned will have to be paid back over a certain period of time, along with interest, fees, and costs. Of course, a loan is not just about the borrower, since the bank granting it must look out for its own interests and determine whether the borrower will have the ability to pay back the money loaned. This means that there will be a series of conditions that a loan applicant must meet in order to be granted this source of financing.

Conditions when applying for a loan - BBVA

Conditions that a loan applicant must meet

When a loan is being granted, regardless of the type, each financial institution is allowed to establish its own set of conditions. These will depend upon the bank’s own risk policy, as well as upon the amount being borrowed and its purpose. In spite of this potential for variation, there are some typical requirements that all banks will ask of any individual seeking a loan. Among others, these include the following:

  • Being of legal age: banks need to be sure that the money they loan will be paid back, and this is only possible if the applicant has a stable credit history and a regular source of income. Both of these conditions are difficult for a minor to comply with.
  • Solvency and stable income: or in other words, evidence of having the ability to pay back the money loaned. To meet this requirement, the person requesting the loan must demonstrate that he or she has a stable income, which must also exceed the obligations taken on with the bank. For example, if the loan will require €300 of the total amount borrowed to be paid back each month, there must be income sources that will allow this amount to be freely available on a monthly basis.

Given these general requirements for requesting a loan, it is easy to see that those with regular income sources, or with a permanent employment contract and seniority at the same company, or who are public officials or civil service employees, will find it easier to gain access to a loan.

Taking a trip, remodeling your home, or continuing your education is easier with an online loan from BBVA: more information

What is a personal guarantee?

When applying for a loan you must be aware of a general principle found in Spanish law, as expressed in article 1,911 of the Civil Code, which states the following: “To comply with the obligations the borrower must make use of all of his or her assets, both present and future.” This means that the borrower has the obligation to pay back the amount agreed upon with the bank by using all of his or her current or future income and property. When a loan operation involves more than one person, in the form of co-holders of the loan, this can produce two types of personal guarantees or liabilities:

  • Joint and several liability: the bank can indiscriminately hold one of the borrowers liable for 100% of the amount of the loan, and the borrowers can then make claims against each other in relation to the amounts owed as agreed upon between them.
  • Proportionate liability: Each borrower is liable to the bank for a specific amount of the loan as previously agreed upon, with these amounts adding up to 100% of the loan.

Required documentation and other requirements when applying for a loan

Depending on the bank where the loan is being requested, there may be a greater or lesser number of documents required. It is most typical for a loan applicant to be required by the bank to provide his or her Tax ID Number (NIF) or Foreigner ID Number (NIE), the checking account number where the money loaned will be deposited, a photocopy of multiple salary receipts or evidence of other regular income being received, an employment history so the bank can have an idea about the borrower’s relationships with employers, the most recent income tax return, photocopies of deeds and titles for real estate and other assets possessed, and information related to any other loans that may exist.

In addition to all of this documentation, if the loan applicant is self-employed the bank may also request a photocopy of the self-employment registration document, the most recent annual VAT statement, and the most recent quarterly Income Tax payment slips.

Finally, when requesting a loan, if you have your salary directly deposited at the bank during the entire life of the loan you can benefit from an interest subsidy, which means that the interest rate will be lower. For those who are looking for a loan, BBVA makes a loan simulator available that potential borrowers can use to view the prices and payment amounts for their future loan. You can find all of these details and many more at the BBVA website.

How the loan depreciation framework is drawn up

 

How the loan depreciation framework is drawn up

The amortization table is analyzed in detail from the type of interest that we will pay up to how the debt will evolve

Image result for loan depreciation

 

The concept may sound too technical, but deep down, the repayment chart of our loan is not more than a table that represents how our debt evolves over time. In the financial sector there are different ways to repay (money back) the money that a banking entity lends to its customers, although in Spain the most common is the French method . We review now what it consists of and, above all, why you are interested in knowing how a loan repayment table is carried out.

How does a loan repay?

In any loan, there are three key factors: the loaned capital, the type of interest you lend and the repayment period. These three variables combined in a table, help us to draw our amortization chart, which details monthly the composition of the quota.

  • Borrowed capital : it is the total amount that we receive as clients.
  • Interest rate : it is the price to access that money. The type of interest can be fixed (never change) or variable (it evolves based on a reference index, which is usually the Euribor).
  • Amortization period: the time we have for repaying the loan, divided into monthly installments.

As explained, the loan repayment table is usually calculated in Spain in accordance with the French method, which is that the customer will always pay the same monthly installment for the entire life of the loan. Of course, this depends on the type of interest you choose – the fixed or variable type – and the possible conditions under which the loan is contracted; For example, some entities offer loans whose monthly quota is lower during the first years of the loan.

In any case, this monthly fee will always be composed of two elements : the capital that they have lent us and that we are returning, and the interest we pay for that money. Therefore, thanks to the depreciation chart, we can see how this debt is evolving month after month, with the payment of the quotas, and verify that the interest we pay for the capital we request represents each month that it passes a lesser amount of the amount that we pay, in proportion to that we have left to return the loan.

At this point, it should be noted that the cost of a loan is greater, the longer it takes to return the money, since interest is paid for longer. But let’s see everything more clearly with the following example.

BBVA Loans

Example of amortization chart

For the following example we will simplify to the maximum all the possibilities at the time of requesting a loan. Imagine that we need € 20,000 for a new vehicle and we go to our trusted bank to get them. There we are told that the loan interest rate is 7% annual fixed and we offer to return it in 10 years. Therefore, our amortization table shows the following data:

  • Total quotas: 120.
  • Monthly cost of the quota: € 232.22.
  • Composition of the first quota:
    • Capital we are returning: € 115.55.
    • Interest: € 116.67.
  • Composition of the quota number 60 (half the life of the loan):
    • Capital we are returning: € 162.86.
    • Interest: € 69.36.
  • Composition of quota number 120 (last quota):
    • Capital we are returning: 230.29 €.
    • Interest: € 1.34.

With these numbers we see how the composition of our monthly quota has been changing . We pay to pay 50.24% interest in the first quota to 29.8% in the quota number 60. At the end of the repayment period, the interest we pay represents only 0.5% of the total monthly installment, That is to say, virtually no interest is paid.

Without entering into details, this is how the repayment of a loan works, which shows that the higher the amount of the loan and the repayment period, the higher the proportion of interest paid in each monthly installment. It is, therefore, a very useful tool to know at every moment that we are paying and to weigh different options when it comes to hiring a loan.

Lastly, we must add that BBVA offers you a loan simulator so that you can use it to know, in detail, what is the repayment chart for your loan.

 

What is the ASNEF and how does it influence the granting of a loan

What is the ASNEF and how does it influence the granting of a loan

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In Spain there are several lists of defaulters, which have repercussions in the granting of a loan

The financing you need, quickly and easily, with BBVA loans Calculate your loan

Following the acronym ASNEF is the National Association of Financial Credit Establishments. In other words, it is one of the largest records of defaulters in Spain . Therefore, being included in this file.will make it very difficult for us to get a bank to trust us to grant us a loan, credit, mortgage … in reality, it will practically make it impossible for us to access financing. Let’s review now how this file works and what alternatives there are to get out of it.

The ASNEF is a database that banks regularly consult , as part of the study of the client’s profile when lending money or offering the hiring of, for example, credit cards. Although it is not the only file of these characteristics – the RAI or Record of Unpaid Acceptances is another – it is one of the most relevant and serves as a decision-making tool for most banks in the country.

An unpaid invoice such as the telephone line or the gas bill, are sufficient for the company that provides the service to include us in this file. However, the consumer must be notified , at most, 30 days after being included in this list.

From there, a grace period of ten days is opened in which we can pay the debts that they impute to us. Otherwise, we will officially become part of the list of defaulters for a period of six years. And if this case happens, our capacity to contract services, both banking and of any other nature, will be drastically reduced.

Traveling, making a reform or expanding your studies is easier with BBVA’s online loans: more information

What do you do if you include us in ASNEF?

The normal thing is that before the inclusion of our data in the list of ASNEF we get a notification by letter. That’s when different possibilities open up to reverse this situation : either pay the debt or request cancellation of our data, as long as:

  • We have not been notified, by post, of the inclusion of our data in this file.
  • The debt does not belong to us or it can not be shown that it belongs to us.
  • We have already settled the debt prior to the inclusion of our data in this file.

To begin the process of ‘erasing’ our data, the most usual is to go to our bank (even if it is not the company that has included us in the file) or, failing that, visit the Association’s website, where explains in detail the procedure and the corresponding forms are provided.

In addition, as customers included in ASNEF, we have the right to request information about the company that has claimed our inclusion in the list, the amount that we claim and the date on which our data has gone to this file.

Today the payment of my loan with Vivus expires, what do I do?

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Today the payment of my loan with Vivus expires, what do I do?

Many customers call us or write us and tell us: today my loan payment with Vivus expires , what do I do? Well, today’s post we explain it in detail.

Surely, if you have come this far it is because you have also asked yourself the question: today the payment of my loan Vivus expires, what do I do? Probably because at this precise moment you do not have the liquidity to return it . Well, in today’s article we are going to talk about the extensions and the facilities that we offer from Vivus to return your microcredit at the time that is most suitable for you .

Today the payment of my loan with Vivus expires, what is an extension?

Returning a Vivus loan is as easy as requesting it, but if the time comes you can not do it, do not worry! It’s over whoever is in your head that of: today the payment of my loan Vivus expires, what do I do?

The extensions are used so that if the expiration date of your microloan arrives, it does not suit you to make the payment of the credit or if from the beginning you want to have your money for an additional time, you can contract an extension of the term, for 7, 14 or 30 days Which means you can defer your loan repayment date in 7, 14 or 30 more days , starting from the loan’s due date.

You can contract an extension even on the day of contracting the credit and during the entire period of validity of the same , up to 24/48 working hours before the expiration, in the case of payment by means of deposit in account or transfer. If you make the payment by card, you can request the extension on the same day of the expiration of your loan.

It is very simple: if you have an open loan, whose due date is March 10, and you want to extend the term by 7 days, you will have to repay your loan on March 17, since this will be your new due date. And most importantly, it does not matter what day you ask for the extension of the term, since it always starts counting from the day your loan expires.

Today the payment of my loan with Vivus expires, how can I contract an extension?

If you want to extend the repayment term of your loan through an extension, the first thing you should do is get in touch with us, through any of these options:

  1. Accessing your user profile from the web vivus.es, where you will find an option to extend your micro-loan term.
  2. Calling our Customer Service Department at 91 290 77 88 indicating that you wish to use an extension of time. They will help you and guide you step by step through the process.

In order to extend your due date, you must make a payment that depends on the number of days of the extension (7, 14 or 30) and the amount of your loan . Both on our website and via telephone, we will inform you without any commitment of the amount established for the extension of your loan.

Why should I hire an extension?

The most important advantage you get when hiring an extension is that you do not incur delays and penalties for delaying payment of your microloan. In this way, you extend the date of return of your loan and avoid having to pay penalties that will cost you more expensive.

Remember, also, that your payment history with an entity influences (and a lot) when it comes to obtaining financing in the future.

In short, the term extensions help us avoid unnecessary expenses, are easy and comfortable to pay and do not incur problems with the entity, so that, if once the loan is returned you want to request another, they will not give us any problems!